Anatomical pathology is the study of organs and tissues to determine the causes and effects of particular diseases. An anatomical pathologist’s findings are fundamental to medical diagnosis, patient management and research. Anatomical pathology involves macroscopic pathology, histopathology (the combination of these two usually being referred to as “surgical” pathology), cytopathology and morbid anatomy. Histopathology is concerned with the microscopic examination of tissues, taken either as biopsy samples or resection specimens. Tissues are assessed macroscopically, and material is taken for microscopic examination for the purpose of diagnosis, prognosis and directing appropriate treatment. Cytopathology is the study of individual cells aspirated or obtained from body fluids or tissues, including exfoliative cytology, to detect abnormalities. Morbid anatomy is the use of the autopsy to determine cause of death and investigate both the associated and “incidental” (unrelated to cause of death) effects of drugs, toxins and disease processes on bodily organs. Anatomical pathologists work with almost all medical specialties, including surgeons and general practitioners, using techniques available in the anatomical pathology laboratory to provide information and advice essential to clinical practic.